Pulsed electric fields applied to cells can increase the permeability of the cell membrane. Drugs, DNA, nanoparticles, and other chemicals can be introduced into the cell through these temporary pores in the cell membrane. This reversible electroporation requires precision control of the output voltage and pulse widths. Longer pulses and/or higher field strengths can cause apoptosis or necrosis. In some applications, bilevel waveforms or bipolar waveforms with different pulse widths improve performance.1 EHT’s precision pulsed power systems offer users the ability to easily control bipolar and bilevel waveforms.
 Sano, M., Fan, R. & Xing, L. Asymmetric Waveforms Decrease Lethal Thresholds in High Frequency Irreversible Electroporation Therapies. Sci Rep 7, 40747 (2017).